Who Are the Forty-Eights?

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, bringing them to a total of 46 in each cell. Most of the time, the chromosomes are spread out throughout the cell nucleus, though it is still carefully organized.


Organization of DNA in the nucleus in the un-condensed form.


When the chromosomes are condensed, they can be extracted from the cell and viewed in what’s called a karyotype.



DNA being condensed into chromatids.


Human chromosomes (male) in a karyotype display

In book 1, Incarnate: Existence, Sachi’s father figured out how to add two extra chromosomes, and Akira figures out how to organize them within the nucleus so they can function properly. The extra chromosomes contain specific CRISPR site repeats. These chromosomes could then be modified with any number of genetic enhancements without disrupting the natural chromosomes like the common gene doping methods. Eshe and Sachi’s group of freedom fighters utilize these enhancements for their advantage when fighting the drug cartels, Benecorp, and the U.S. regional governments.

This brings a person’s total number of chromosomes from 46 to 48, hence they are known as the Forty-Eights. Four members are shown below in the slideshow.

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Find out more about each character here.

Eshe and Laura in the Liberation of Colorado from Incarnate Essence
Laura and Eshe walking the streets in the Liberation of Colorado (LoC), an anarcho-capitalist society
Akira and Masaru near Benecorp town in Incarnate Essence
Akira and Masaru outside Carlsbad, New Mexico in the Benecorp corporatocracy of the southwest region of the old United States